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09
Oct

Types Of Wood : Hard wood and Soft wood

Trees, when we talk about trees, Trees provide numerous benefits to human and environmental health and Different types of wood that we cannot even count on our fingers .I think it gives a warm feeling to everyone’s heart and then it fills our heart with a little bit of shame and disgrace. After, we realize our action which is increasing against the environment day by day.

With the technological advancement, Ease in the accessibility of the Internet, increase in urbanization has provided a comfort zone or in my words, a shell or a bubble which helps us in ignoring the current environmental conditions by just sticking our eyes on our respective mobile phones or competing on social media platforms and I can assure that this bubble can burst anytime soon if we observe the current environmental conditions and when this bubble will burst we can’t imagine how devastating the situation could be But the good thing is that we can still take care of the environment by just doing one thing or taking

A single step towards the betterment of Nature i.e. “Planting a tree”. 

Trees provide numerous benefits to human and environmental health and Different types of wood that we cannot even count on our fingers because not just health benefits, trees also provide some luxurious benefits too.

Furniture is one and the foremost example of the luxuries provides by different types of trees because we all are aware of the current environmental conditions and demand for furniture in every industry. 

There are more than 58 types of trees or we can say woods that are use in the creation of furniture and various luxurious items such as musical instruments.

Although any type of wood can be use to make furniture, however different types of wood come with different types of characteristics such as color, texture, density, durability, finishing, etc. 

The wood is further classified into two different categories

  • Hardwood 
  • Softwood
Types Of Wood

Hardwood:

Hardwood comes from the Angiosperms like Oak, Maple, Walnut. These trees contain broad leaves or deciduous which falls annually Therefore trees grow slowly that’s why hardwood consists of denser wood fibers.

Types Of Wood

Properties of Hardwood 

  • Hardwood is highly durable, as it comes with close grain, and requires low maintenance. 
  • The growth of hardwood is slow as compared to the softwood which makes the price of hardwood high. Well, there are some exceptions, Gum is a hardwood but it’s not that much expensive, it comes with a price comparable with many types of softwood. 
  • This wood is also used for wooden flooring due to its low sap content and good fire-resistant properties.
  • It is majorly used for making furniture However, not all types of hardwood are used to make furniture.  

Softwood:

Softwood comes from gymnosperms, which are also known as seed-bearing evergreen trees such as cedar, pine, fir, redwood, juniper, and yew. It is easier in cutting down as most evergreen trees tend to be less dense than deciduous trees.

Types Of Wood

Properties of Softwood:

  • Softwood is also know as non-porous woods because of the absence of vessels. Generally, it consists of tracheid’s and wood rays but lack vessels. 
  • The lack of vessels allows softwoods to absorb adhesives quickly, resulting in a better finish.
  • Softwood is generally used in building materials such as structural frames, exterior and wall claddings, formwork, scaffolding, fitting, floor covering, etc. 
  • It is also used in the paper and cardboard industry. 
  • Softwood contains loose grains, higher sap content, and light in color which makes it poor in fire resistance. 
  • Its fine and lightweight structure makes it the best wood for furniture.

Hardwood 

Mahogany 

  • Growth: Mahogany is a types of Wood that generally grows in Western India, Africa, and Central America.  It is a hot climate tree and it is mostly name according to its market place or the port it is sent to. For example, Cuban mahogany, Alaska mahogany, Bolivian mahogany. Sometimes it is name according to its structural feature. Sapelli mahogany, pyramid mahogany, red or yellow mahogany. 
  • Colour: Reddish-brown to blood red
  • Density: Medium Texture to moderately heavy

Grain- Straight 

  • Finishing: Sanding Sealer  Common uses- High-end Furniture, Exterior doors, windows, interiors, millwork, and trim. 

Walnut

Growth: Walnut is a types of Wood that generally cultivate in Turkey, Mexico, China, Iran, the US, and in Northern Parts of India such as Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and chiefly Found in Jammu And Kashmir. It is one of the most popular woods in the US.

Colour: Light Pale brown to Dark Chocolate brown with darker brown streaks.

Grain: Moderately open grain. 

Finishing : Should be finished with oil-based polyurethane.

Common Uses – High-end furniture, musical instruments, flooring accents, carving, and gun stocks.

Oak

Growth : Oak Trees are generally found in the northern hemisphere. There are around 600 species of the oak tree, both in the deciduous and evergreen forest.  In India, Oak trees are found in the northeastern region especially in the Himalayan region along with pine forest. Oakwood is outstandingly strong, heavy, and durable, and it is also resistant to fungal attacks. 

Colour :Pinkish red to blonde 

Density: remarkably strong and very hard 

Grain: Varied and openly Porous grains Patterns 

Finishing: Natural Finish or Oil

Common Uses: Furniture, flooring, Panelling, moulding, trim, cabinets 

Ash

Growth: Ash trees are majorly found in large parts of America. Lannea coromandelica, also known as the Indian ash tree, is a species of tree in the family Anacardiaceae that grows in South and Southeast Asia. In India, It is generally known as the Gurjon tree which is used in is a types of Wood plywoods for its excellent termite resistance properties. It most commonly grows in exposed dry woodland environments. 

It feels smooth to touch and it is tough, durable, and flexible and consists of stupendous glueing, nailing, and screw holding properties. That’s why the carpenters love to work with ash wood. However, it produces a distinct and moderately unpleasant smell while working on it.

 Color: Light, creamy-brown.

Density: Tough, flexible.

Grain: Open-grained with occasional brown streaks.

Common Uses Flooring, boxes/crates, millwork baseball bats, and other turned objects such as tool handles.

Finishing: Takes all finishes.

Birch

Growth: Birch trees are widely spread in the Northern Hemisphere. It is closely related to Oakwood but it is much harder than Oakwood. Birch plywood is probably the most widely used as it is hard, stable, affordable, and readily available.

Colour: reddish-brown with nearly white sapwood.

Density: Hard, medium weight.

Grain: Usually straight or slightly wavy with small pores.

Common Uses Plywood, boxes, crates, turned objects, cabinets, seating, millwork, furniture, interior doors.

Finishing: Takes all finishes.

Maple

Growth: Maple wood is majorly found in the Asian region, but it is also found in North Africa, Europe, and North America. In India, it is found in Ooty and other hilly regions. The maple wood is sturdy, resistant to splitting, and durable. It can be wiped clean with a damp cloth, making it ideal for kitchen furniture.

Colour: The heartwood is typically a darker shade of reddish-brown. Sapwood colour ranges from nearly white to an off-white cream colour. But it can be reddish or golden hue.

Density:  Moderately hard but strong.

Grain: Closed and generally straight, but may be wavy.

Common Uses Everything from furniture and woodenware to flooring and millwork.

Finishing: Takes all finishes.

Cherry

Growth: Cherry wood comes from a cherry fruit tree. It is found majorly in the Northern Hemisphere. In India, it is found in the hilly regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Cherry wood consists of rich colour, smooth grain, and flexible in nature. It is one of the most prominent choices of furniture manufacturers. It also steams easily which makes it ideal for use in curved designs. 

Color – The colour is light pinkish brown when freshly cut. It darkens to a medium reddish-brown over time.

 Density:  Stiff, strong, medium weight, and moderately hard.

  Grain – Closed and straight.

  Common Uses: Cabinetry, fine furniture, flooring, interior millwork, veneer, musical instruments, panelling, turned objects, and small speciality wood items.

  Finishing: Light to natural finishes are recommond.

Teak

Growth: Teaks are tropical hardwood trees that are majorly find in India, Thailand, and Myanmar. Teakwood is considered as one of the most durable and hardest woods among all-natural woods. It is resistant to Sunlight, Rain, Snow, Rotting, and Frost which makes it suitable for outdoor furniture too. However, it is hard to find and it is expensive.

Colour: The colour of Teakwood varies from golden to medium brown. It darkens with age. 

Density: It is strong and heavy as it is considered one of the hardest among natural woods.

Grain: Generally the grain is straight in Teakwood but occasionally, it can be wavy or interlocked.

Finishing: Finishes best with wood lacquer.

Common Uses Furniture, exterior construction, carving, boat building, veneer, and turnings.

In the Indian Subcontinent Teakwood is found in various varieties. 

Nilambur Teakwood 

Nilambur Teakwood is also know as Malabar Teak. It is in Kerala And considered one of its kind in the world. It has large diameter logs and its heartwood is Golden brown. This consists of straight grain and highly durable to termites, and provides ease in work manually or by machine.

Adilabad Teakwood 

Adilabad Teakwood is in the districts of Adilabad, Andhra Pradesh. It consists of colored heartwood and has an attractive surface. 

CPT ( Central Province Teakwood)

CPT teakwood is grow in Madhya Pradesh. It is know for its deep color, close grain, and also for its low growth.  

Dandeli Teakwood

This Dandeli Teakwood comes under the category of slow-growing trees in North Karnataka. it is dark brown in colour and contains irregular or spiral grains. It contains various minerals and is rich in oil. 

Nagpur Teakwood

It is in Nagpur which can be easily derived from its location from its name, this wood is majorly used in making furniture.

Paratwada Teakwood 

 The Paratwada Teakwood comes from a place called Paratwada, in Amravati District, Maharashtra. It is one of the largest suppliers of teakwood in Asia.

East Indian Rosewood

Growth: The East Indian Rosewood is found in Brazil, Madagascar, and India. It grows in tropical environment countries. In India, it is generally found in Assam, Orissa, Bengal, Maharashtra, Mysore, and Uttar Pradesh.  

East Indian Rosewood is one of the toughest and strongest among the natural woods, it does not bend or warp in adverse climatic conditions and it is durable when dried properly. Thous using this wood in the crafting of furniture as it comes with a chalky deposit which may dull tools and creates a problem with finishing.

Color: Its heartwood varies from golden brown to deep purplish brown, with darker brown streaks. 

Density: this wood is Heavy, hard, and strong in nature. 

Grain: it is usually narrowly interlock.

Finishing: this wood finishes well but it requires initial seal coats.

Common Uses: used for making high-end furniture, Musical instruments, veneer, etc. 

Softwood

There are few softwoods that are available in India due to the various environmental factors.

Red Cedar 

Growth: Red Cedar is majorly found in the Eastern United States region. In India, it is in Assam, Nagpur, and Jammu and Kashmir, red cedar wood is famously known for its aroma that’s why its also called red aromatic cedar and It is highly resistant to decay and insect attack. It is highly durable and used for making decorative panels, storage chests and lining of closets, etc. 

Colour: Its heartwood color generally tends to be red or violet-brown. The color of the sapwood is whitish or pale yellow.

Density: Lightweight and Hard texture  

Grain: Straight grains with many knots 

Finishes: Finishes well but the oil finish is recommond 

Common Uses Carvings, Closet and chest linings, outdoor furniture, fence posts, birdhouses, closet interiors, pencils, bows, and smart wooden speciality items. 

Eastern White Pine

 Growth: Eastern White Pine is majorly available in Western America. In India, it is find in the Western Himalayas and types of wood is consider as soft and easily gets decay when it comes in contact with the Earth. It is also resistant to swelling and warping which makes it an ideal kind of wood for all kinds of furniture, indoor and outdoor. Eastern white turns to golden yellow when it is expose to sunlight over time. It becomes relatively stable when it is dry properly. It is fairly porous and it will cup if it absorbs excessive moisture, It is readily accessible and cheap. However, it is consider as one of the most valuable timber species. 

Colour: its heartwood is light brown with a slightly reddish hue. Its Sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white. 

Density: very lightweight and soft

Grain: Generally its straight and tight but winter wood and summer wood shows a significant difference 

Finishing: it finishes well but it should be seal with oil-based or water-based polyurethane. 

Common Uses Carvings, exterior millwork, moldings, furniture, paneling, pattern making, etc. 

Also read about this : https://www.whereismytree.com/10-best-indoor-plants-to-decorate-office-home-balconies/

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