Guavas farming in India is one of the most famous fruit. It is the fourth most produced fruit on a national scale. The area used for guava cultivation is around 0.15 million hectares and 1.8 million tonnes of fruit. Bihar is the leading state in guava production by Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Also scientifically known as Psidium guajava and commonly known as the poor man’s fruit. It is a very beneficial fruit that consists of high nutritional value especially Vitamin C. Therefore, Bihar is also widely cultivating in various states such as Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh.
|Andhra Pradesh||East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ananthapur, Medak, Ranga Reddy, Mahaboob Nagar, Prakasham, Khammam|
|Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur, Ujjain, Hoshangabad, Khargone, Badwani, Indore, Shivpuri|
|Chhattisgarh||Raipur, Durg, Jabalpur|
|Maharashtra||Satara, Beed, Pune, Ahmed Nagar, Aurangabad, Amravati|
|Karnataka||Kolar, Shimoga, Dharwar, Raichur, Bangalore (R & U), Belgaum|
|Tamil Nadu||Madurai, Dindigul, Salem|
|Jharkhand||Ranchi, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Dhanbad|
|West Bengal||South 24 Parganas, North 24 Parganas, Hooghly|
|Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad, Farukhabad, Aligarh, Badaun|
There are numerous varieties of Guavas grown in India
|State||Varieties are grown|
|Andhra Pradesh||–||Allahabad safeda, Lucknow 49, Anakapalli, Banarasi, Chittidar, Hafshi, Sardar, Smooth Green, Safed Jam, Arka Mridula|
|Madhya Pradesh||–||L-49, Allahabad safe, Gwalior-27, Hafshi, Seedless Chittidar|
|Jharkhand||–||L-49, Allahabad safe|
|Karnataka||–||Allahabad Safeda, L-49, Araka Mridula, Araka Amulya, Bangalore, Dharwar|
|Assam||–||Am Sophri, Madhuri Am, Safrior Payer|
|Bihar & Jharkhand||–||Allahabad Safeda, Apple Colour, Chittidar, Hafshi, Harijha, Sardar, Selection-8|
|Maharashtra & Gujarat||–||Nagpur seedless, Dharwar, Dholka, Kothrud, L-24, L-49, Nasik, Sindh|
|North-eastern States||–||Allahabad Safeda, Sardar, Red Fleshed.|
|Tamil Nadu||–||Anakapalli, Banarasi, Bangalore, Chittidar, Hafshi, Nagpur Seedless, Smooth Green|
|Uttar Pradesh||–||L-49, Allahabad Safeda, Lucknow Safeda, Apple Colour, Chittidar, Red Fleshed, Allahabad Surkha, Sardar, Mirzapuri Seedless, CISH-G-1, CISH-G-2, CISH-G-3|
|West Bengal||–||L-49, Allahabad Safeda, Dudhe Khaja, Gole Khaja, Kabli, Baruipur, Chittidar, Harijha, Sardar|
This fruit is really hardy in nature. Also cultivated in all types of soil i.e. from alluvial to lateral. However, this fruit is sensitive to waterlogging soils. Also cultivated in heavier soil but make sure the soil must be well-drain. Best grown in deep friable( dry) and well-drained soils. PH of the soil can vary from 4.5 to 8.2 but saline and alkaline soils are not suitable for guava cultivation.
Favorable Climatic Conditions
Guava fruit can successfully thrive under both tropical and subtropical climates. It can grow from sea level to an altitude of about 1500m. This fruit can be best grown between June to September where the annual rainfall occurs below 1,000 mm. It is not suitable in those areas where the temperature is less than 5 degrees Celcius. Young plants of guava are sensitive to drought and cold conditions.
Propagation of Guava Tree
Guava is propagated from seeds and also by vegetative methods. Trees produce through seedlings provides fruits of variable sizes and quality although such trees are generally long-lived. Vegetative methods like cutting, grafting, air layering, and budding are used for the propagation of guava. Air-Layering is considered and has been also observed as the most successful commercial method practised for the cultivation of guava. The cheapest method of its rapid multiplication is stooling which is mound layering in nursery beds.
Planting method of Guava
The field where the cultivation of guava is going to happen should be deeply ploughed, cross ploughed, harrowed, and levelled before digging pits. The pits should be dug before the monsoon with the dimensions of about 0.6m X 0.6m X 0.6m. Each pit should be filled with soil mixed with 20kg of organic manure 500 g of superphosphate, after 15-20 days. In the case of very poor soils, the size of the pit and quantity of manure may vary, like the pit size may be bigger, around 1m X 1m X 1m and more manures may be required. The onset of the monsoon season is the time to initiate the guava plantation.
Planting density in guava farming
The plant should be placed with a standard spacing of 6m X 6m, consideration of planting 112 guava plants per acre. However, it is generally planted at a distance of 3.6m to 5.4m. In some parts of the country, the traditional planting space can be varied up to 5.4m to 7m. The productivity of the guava plant is increased by increasing plant density. it results in the reduction of the size of fruits, the number of fruits per plant remains more or less similar. A distance of 4.5m X 4.5m with a population of 195 plants per hectare is considered according to the model scheme.
Irrigation Techniques for Guava plants
Generally, the requirement of water for guava cultivation is really less. However, young guava requires 8 to 10 irrigations per year. A minimum amount of water or life-saving watering is necessary for dry areas and on light soils. Full-grown trees require watering at weekly intervals during May and July. Irrigating guava during winter results in a reduction of fruit drop and improve the size of the fruit crop. V-shaped or half-moon shaped bounds or saucer-shaped basins should be made in order to conserve soil moisture from pre-monsoon showers. Drip irrigation is the best-suited irrigation method in the case of Guava cultivation. It results in a substantial increase in the size and quantity of guava fruits and also saves 60% of water.
The requirement of Manure and Fertilizers in Guava orchard
Guava is very responsive when inorganic fertilizers are applied with the organic manures. With the spraying of 0.45kg Zinc sulfate and slaked lime dissolved in 72.74L (16 gallons) of water on trees will remove zinc deficiency in plants. The number of sprays must depend upon the severity and the extent of the deficiency. The spraying of 0.4% boric acid and 0.3% zinc sulfate at the pre-flowering stage results in an increase in the size & yield of the fruit. Spraying 0.2% to 0.4% of copper sulfate will lead to an increase in the yield and growth of the guava.
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