When we talk about agriculture, or we just plan to grow some plants or fruits in our neighborhood
The first and foremost thing we check or analyze is the type of soil. Soil is the most important factor in agricultural practices. But before further analyzing the soil we must know that what is soil.
Soil is known as a composition of minerals, air, water, organic matter, and decay of countless living organisms which is formed at the earth’s surface. It is also considered as the skin of the earth and is capable of supporting Plant Life.
It is form when rocks get decompose slowly by different factors such as sun, wind, rain. Due to this natural procedure, 10 centimeters of fertile soil is create in the around 2000 long years.
Classification of soils
As India has varied relief features, climatic conditions, landforms, and types of vegetation. It results in the development of different types of soil in India.
According to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Indian soil is classified on the basis of color, texture, PH value, structure, porosity, etc.
- Alluvial Soil
- Red Soil
- Black Soil
- Laterite soil
- Arid Soil
- Forest Soil
- Peaty Soil
The formation of Alluvial Soils is done by deposition of the sediments brought down by the river which is rich in chemical ingredients. The rivers deposit very fine particles of soil which is known as alluvium in plains during their course of their journey. It is a mixture of sand, clay, and silt called loam.
- Alluvial Soil is a very fertile soil as it is rich in minerals, especially in potash and lime.
- It is also light and porous therefore it is best in the cultivation of crops.
- It is suitable for the growth of a vast variety of Kharif and rabi crops.
- This soil is deficient in Nitrogen and Humus.
The texture of alluvium soil in upper reaches in the river valleys that is near to their place of origination is rough, the soil particles are large and non-uniform, these soils are predominant in piedmont plains i.e. plains found near the foot of the mountains. The soil particles become smaller and uniform as we move further down the river valley and are found to a depth of 500 meters.
Alluvium soil is distributed in three ways
It also found in the plains of Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra rivers, Extending from Punjab and Sindh to Assam and Bangladesh. Also found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, and Bihar.
This Soil is also surround by the Deltas of Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada, Godavari, Mahanadi, and the Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers.
Coastal Alluvium is also in the plains of the Gujarat and coastal strips of peninsular India. It is tidal in origin.
Types of Alluvium Soil
There are two types of Alluvium Soil
- Bhangar occupies the largest part of northern plains.
- Also known as the old Alluvial Soil.
- Bhangar is not very a fertile but crops can be cultivate by the use of manure.
- Also situated above the flood levels of the rivers.
- It is full of calcium carbonate nodules.
- Khadar lies below the northern plains.
- Also known as the New Alluvial Soil.
- Flood water deposits new layers annually.
- Khadar is very fertile and it is Ideal for intensive cultivation.
- It is form by Silt and Clay.
As we have studied that the Alluvial Soil is highly fertile. It is suitable for the cultivation of a large variety of crops like Rice, Tobacco, Sugarcane, Wheat, Cotton, Gram, maize, and oilseeds.
Red soil is form due to the weathering of old Crystalline igneous Rocks in the areas of low rainfall and southern parts of the Deccan plateau. Also known as the omnibus group.
- Red soil is rich in Iron
- It contains a small amount of Humus
- Slightly Acidic and do not retain moisture
- Poor in Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Lime.
- Red Soil is light, porous, and friable
- It covers around 3.5 lakh square kilometer in India
- It is red in color due to the presence of ferric oxide
Red Soil is to generally found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Nilgiri, Telengana, Chhotanagpur Plateau, Andhra Pradesh, and Periphery areas of Deccan Plateau.
Red Soil is less fertile as compared to the Alluvial Soil, but it is suitable for the cultivation of Rice, Wheat, Cotton, Pulses, Millets, Tobacco, Oilseeds.
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